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Aspen current thinking column


Spring 2013

December Current Thinking Column

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Professional Satisfaction: Not a Footnote to a Career

by William Roberts

Have you received a compliment lately that was unexpected and reflected well on your abilities and professionalism?  This is a season when we often exchange pleasantries, whether it be a “Merry Christmas” or “Happy Holidays,” that share our good feelings about the season or year we have almost completed.  Then, along comes a comment that is anything but ordinary or mundane—a sincere, thoughtful, from the heart expression that stops the world for a moment and causes a pause for reflection.  Just such an event recently occurred not once, but three times all within the last month. Clients, some of 20 years, took the time to express appreciation for the work their advisors have done resulting in two successful G-2 to G-3 transitions and a third that is well on its way to a plan of transition to G-2.

The stories behind these successful transitions or planning processes are as varied as the families that created them, yet there are success principles/lessons that run through all three and are instructive to us.  A bit of background will help put the challenges these families faced into perspective and lay to rest any thoughts that these were easily arrived upon transition results.  In fact, quite the opposite, there were facts and strong opinions that could have easily flipped the switch to a completely different result devoid of the principles and values that followed during the planning process.

Each of these families began their planning process knowing that there were likely going to be next-gens in G-3 who were employed in the business and some who would not be employed.  Among those employed, there was a wide variety of skills and dedication to their work.  There was compensation, family employment, and in some cases, entitlement issues to be dealt with.  In one case, there was not a clear-cut "leader" that had emerged and a real question about whether the next-gen had the unique skills necessary to be CEO of the family business.

Despite the plethora of challenges and potential landmines, there was also foundational pillars upon which we could build the plan for the continuation of the family business.  The first and foremost was deep-seated values that had been passed down from generations before.  Two of the families had deep spiritual beliefs and respect for one another that was critical as we moved through the planning process.  

Each of these situations shared the following values: strong family ties, respect for one another (even during disagreement), a desire to maintain family connection and to deepen the ties to one another, a passion to maintain the business the family had passed to them and to pass it along stronger and better for the next generation.  

Passion for education as it related to developing better management skills, and other talents valued in the family business were evident and important to the success of the transition as well.

Interestingly, what the families refused to allow—obstacles to destroy their connectivity to one another or to damage what had been passed to them—revealed additional family values. One such was the cancer of "entitlement,” another was the destruction that can occur from the impact of a forced sale of assets due to estate taxes levied on the value of the family business.  A third was jealousies or rivalries/conflicts caused by the employment of certain next-gens over others. Another was life choices made by some of the next-gens that could have been destructive to the family and ultimately the success of the planning process.  Each of the families dealt with these challenges in unique paths, but all referred back to their values to deal with them in non-destructive ways.

The lessons learned from these three families hopefully will be instructive to your family path, ultimately lending hope when times are difficult, as often they are. Hopefully, if these principles are followed, a successful outcome will ensue.  In looking back over the years of work with these families, their commitment to putting family first was inspiring.  They were not going to let the challenges or difficulties get in the way of their relationships.  There were times of constructive conflict when actions were challenged that were counter to the families values, but it was done with a goal of inclusion instead of exclusion.

In each of the families we dealt with the "equal versus equitable" philosophy surrounding the ownership of stock and participation in the family business.  Each family has dealt with this issue in its own unique way, but with common values exhibited. Those values are the owners of the stock control the decisions regarding the business.  However, the design of their plans focuses on exhibiting fairness to the non-active shareholders.  There are control mechanisms in place to protect the business (the goose that is laying the golden eggs) from distributions that could be damaging to its health and future while still providing benefits from the ownership of the stock in the family's business.

All the families have developed a “Shared Vision” statement that incorporates their values and principles.  This vision statement is prominent in family meetings and evident in the decision-making of the family and the business.  We like to think of it as the "lighthouse on the hill" as it provides guidance when the family is working through difficult issues or evaluating opportunities that are presented.  If the strategies or opportunities are outside of the family's vision of where they want to go, it is discarded and time is only spent on those strategies consistent with the Shared Vision.  

It also allows the family to identify obstacles that lie between their current situation and where the Shared Vision would have them.  They have not shied away from dealing with those obstacles. Rather, they have aggressively sought the advice or advisors necessary to creating a solution.

This leads me to another best practice observed in these families: a relentless dedication to the effort necessary to work through their planning with their advisors.  Each of the families has spent countless hours with a variety of advisors to assist them in crafting the solutions we celebrated with them this month.  Millions of dollars of tax-saving strategies were implemented to avoid the demolition of the business due to estate taxes.   Specialist advisors were brought in to address unique problems that family members faced.  Testing and evaluations to determine skill sets and compatibility were used appropriately.  Mentoring, education, and training were a hallmark of each situation resulting in the next-gens preparedness to accept the mantle of leadership.

Consistent with the dedication to planning was a loyalty to the advisors who knew and understood the history of the family, which contributed to suggestions that were in line with the family's values.  They were also aware of where "bodies were buried" so as to not step on long-buried landmines. While not afraid to bring in specialists when needed, the loyalty to existing advisors allowed the planning to proceed with an eye to the past as well as the future.

Inherent in all the above was a dedication to follow through.  Meetings ended with action plans, timetables, and leadership responsibilities.  Accountability was maintained among advisors, which raised performance levels and kept projects from languishing due to procrastination.  This ultimately led to completion and implementation of agreed upon strategies and to the success we see today.

Lastly, in all of the families, there was a real concern and compassion for the employees, many of whom had been with these companies for years.  There was a respect for their opinions and skill sets and an overall recognition that the business was highly dependent on their high-level performance.  The family was not only concerned about employee work performance, but also the families of their employees. They exhibited this caring in tangible and generous ways specific to the needs expressed.  I have found this to be a consistent value not only among these three companies, but also in many others over the years.

It is always heartwarming to see successful transitions of family businesses.  What we have learned is that transition is not easy or automatic, but rather a result of thoughtful leadership, strong values, consistency and dedication to the goal of transition and a commitment to the process.  Hopefully you will find the same principles in your family business and will develop your own success story to share with your advisors and peers.


November Current Thinking Column

Sunday, December 04, 2016


by Joe Paul

Last July, the Aspen Family Business Group put on a conference called Consilience, which in Latin translates to “jumping in together.”  It was a learning intensive for non-clinical professionals who wanted to be comfortable working with families in business or those who manage other significant assets. An international affair, our conference limited participation to 20 people from all over the world, each bringing a unique perspective. In this blog, I am discussing some ideas left over from the conference that are somewhat off the beaten path for most consultants. The questions that underlie these issues are the psychological and social effects of the geometric evolution of technology.

How can we help prepare our clients for the flood of “game changing” technologies that are already coming down the digital pike? For example:

Driverless cars and trucks

Contact lenses with embedded facial recognition and search engine software

 3-D copy machines

Nano-robots the size of red blood cells that can cross the blood/brain barrier 

This blog will only be a brief introduction to two futurists, Ray Kurzweil and Ross Dawson. You will find links to video of both people among their quotations below.

It is staggering to think about the amount of knowledge on planet earth that is being created and managed every second of every day. There are oceans of data, unending amounts of information, all of the knowledge we have and the depth of the wisdom we have acquired being continuously created, integrated, improved and preserved. This includes every corporation, city, medical specialty, army, universities, and science discipline.

How does one plan for their business and their family in the hyper-interconnectivity of the planet?

Will the earth become a meta-life form in this stage of evolution?

The following excerpt from Ross Dawson begins to answer these questions. His book, Living Networks, attempts to answer many of the challenges we face as we approach an increasingly connected and technologically-integrated society. 

How Connectivity is Bringing Our World to Life

“We who are privileged to be alive today are participating in the birth of a new life form: the global networks. All the talk of the ‘new economy’ in the late 1990s reflected many of the changes at play in our world. In truth, they may well have underestimated the importance of the juncture we are at, which represents a complete change in the nature of society and business. Since the dawn of humanity people have been the dominant force on our planet, for better and—sometimes—for worse. Now individuals are being transcended by a higher-order life-form, which is connecting and merging most of the people and all the digital devices on the planet into a single entity.”

“In some ways we have been moving towards this point for millennia. Just as amoeba or other single-celled organisms flowed and interacted in the primordial soup long before eventually coming together to form multi-celled organisms, individuals have been developing increasingly rich interaction over the years. The pace has accelerated, and now we are finally reaching the stage at which we must think of ourselves and the networks that connect us as an entity in its own right. This is happening on two levels. First, integrating humanity and the flow of information and ideas so closely it becomes as a single ‘global brain.’ And second, the computing and communication technologies themselves are forming a system with all the characteristics of life. As we shall see, these two concepts overlap strongly, as people and technology increasingly merge.”

“You might find this idea ridiculous, intriguing, far-fetched, amusing, perhaps all of these. I will argue in this book that once we adjust our understanding of life to the new world that we find ourselves in, that it is simply a fact. However this book is primarily a business book—it is intended for people who are managing organizations, working for themselves or others, trying to make a difference in the world, doing what it takes to achieve success in any domain. I certainly hope that as you read this book you come to believe and understand that we are living within networks that are themselves living. That isn’t important, however—in any case you will see how it is useful to think of the networks as being alive, and the very practical business implications of a world in which information and ideas are flowing vastly faster, more broadly, and more richly than ever before. As such it is an examination of the apotheosis of the information economy.”

The Superorganism

“The idea of humanity as a whole being considered as a living entity is by no means a new one. Some of the early proponents include the nineteenth century evolutionary biologist Herbert Spencer, who coined the phrase ‘survival of the fittest’ before Darwin used it, and science fiction writer H.G. Wells, who wrote a book World Brain outlining his vision for human minds coming together as one. The revolutionary mystic Pierre Teilhard de Chardin brought into our language the word noösphere, which means the global domain of mind. Over the last decade the ‘global brain’ movement has gained momentum, however primarily as a discussion between academics on the social implications of the birth of a higher-order entity”.

“The word ‘superorganism’ means an organism that is itself composed of other organisms. Plants and animals are made up of many living cells, however those cells cannot survive on their own. In contrast, beehives and ant colonies are prime examples of superorganisms. Each insect has an independent existence, but often can only survive as part of the larger societies of which they are part. The behaviors of bee swarms or ant colonies emerge at the level of those societies, and cannot be predicted from studying the individual insects”

“The idea of a superorganism is that it can be considered as an integrated whole. It is clear that a multi-celled organism such as a tree or a cat is an integral whole—messages and responses flow through the entire organism in a coordinated fashion. However while an ant colony consists of many ants that are alive in their own right, it can be thought of as an entity because of the complex signaling that enables distribution of labor and coordinated actions. These signals can be considered to be the nervous system of the life form, whether they are within a single multi-celled organism, or between the individual living entities that make up a superorganism.”

The Business Implications of Living Networks

“So what are the implications of the birth of the living networks? What does it mean for the organizations and individuals that are meshed into a life form far greater than themselves? Those are the issues we will explore throughout this book, seeking wherever possible to find practical approaches to the key business drivers we confront every day. How does it affect the way we manage people and processes in organizations? How should we develop valuable relationships inside and outside our organizations? What is the impact of intellectual property issues on our life within the networks? What organizational strategies will be successful? As individuals, how can we live richer and more fulfilling lives?”

“The first thing we must understand is that the living networks form a whole. There are no true boundaries within the living networks—the flow of information and ideas that is at their heart respects no artificial borders, be it across nations or organizations. Most managers think at the level of the organization, about their company and how it interacts with its environment. This is dangerous, almost delusional. We must think first on the level of the flows of information and ideas, the flows of value, the global nature of the networks that in which we participate. Only from that perspective can we understand how our firms can create and extract value by integrating and combining with these rich flows. The way we approach all of our business relationships, including working with customers and suppliers, outsourcing, alliances, and collaboration, determine the success of the organization.”

“Information and ideas—and the relationships through which they flow—are all that matter in the economy today. To take just one flow of value in the economy, whether you are mining and refining copper, transporting it around the world, building and selling products from copper, or trading copper futures in the financial markets, the effectiveness of your business decisions is based on the relevance, accuracy, and timeliness of the information you have, and the quality of the ideas you apply to your processes. The critical importance of information and ideas in the economy is by no means new. However it is now predominant.”

“The only truly sustainable competitive advantage in a world of free flow of information and ideas is the ability to create and implement valuable new ideas, in other words to innovate. However the dynamics of innovation are changing dramatically. As technology becomes increasingly advanced, and thus specialized, no organization can claim to have the full spectrum of expertise required to innovate. We have no choice but to collaborate in order to keep ahead. And this creates a whole minefield of intellectual property issues. The concept of the living networks gives us powerful insights on both how we create intellectual property.” 

To read and learn more information about Ross Dawson’s entire book, Living Networks, click here.

The next concept I want us to be thinking about is singularity. In The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, Ray Kurzweil presents the next stage of his compelling view of the future: the merging of humans and machines. This ultimate merger between man and machine is what Kurzweil refers to as “the singularity.”

Upon a mere cursory Google of Ray Kurzweil and the accelerating speed of technological change, you can see his description of the singularity. It describes a future period during which the pace of technological change will be so rapid, its impact so deep, that human life will be irreversibly transformed. Kurzweil further postulates that we are already in the very early stages of this transition, and that within just a few decades, life as we know it will be completely different. He writes,

“The singularity will represent the culmination of the merger of our biological thinking and existence with our technology, resulting in a world that is still human but that transcends our biological roots. There will be no distinction, post-singularity, between human and machine nor between physical and virtual reality. If you wonder what will remain unequivocally human in such a world, it’s simply this quality — ours is the species that inherently seeks to extend its physical and mental reach beyond current limitations.” 

For more information about Ray Kurzweil, click here

The accelerating pace of the evolution of technology cannot be maintained with traditional means.  Some of our clients will be on the cutting edge of this change. One way we can help them is by using techniques for making their tacit knowledge more explicit.  We can answer questions like: What is the knowledge that differentiates your business? Where and how is that knowledge preserved and protected? We can also find out where the flow of knowledge is blocked. 

Within the next few decades, there will be a large percentage of companies that do not survive this acceleration. Often the conflict between family members is the greatest liability for the company. These relationships will prevent the family from adapting to the changes required in the transforming marketplace. We can help with that.

I welcome you to get in touch if you would like to compare notes on this multifaceted topic. I encourage you to message us here


October Current Thinking Column

Saturday, October 29, 2016

Exploring the “Troisieme”

by Leslie Dashew

As I find myself in the “troisieme,” or the last third of my own life, I find that I am trending along with the majority demographics right now. That is, I am a “baby boomer” and my peers are exploring how to find meaning and impact during our longer lives. 

Why is this important? If we hold on to our leadership roles and do not work on transitioning, we keep the next generation from having their chance to lead during their generative years. As an example, I recently saw a production of a play entitled Charles III about the supposed death of Queen Elizabeth and the succession of her son, Charles. However, that transition happened when Charles was an “old man,” and the next generation (his kids) were of the age at which they thought they should be ascending to the throne. Charles waited to have his chance, only to be seen as out of touch with the realities of the current political environment. 

Since it is likely that many of us will live well into our nineties, even exceeding 100 years of age, it is important that we plan not only for our financial security and medical needs, but also for a life of meaning. Erik Erickson, the noted developmental psychologist, told us that each age of our lives has a unique challenge to resolve. In the elder years, the dilemma is “integrity vs. despair.” If we can look at our lives and feel we are living in accordance with our values and using our waning energy toward those values, then we experience the joy and peace that comes with integrity. On the other hand, if we only look at our losses and what we can no longer accomplish, we despair. The ability to accommodate the evolving reality that we are experiencing with an attitude of acceptance and appreciation, while supporting the following generations with our wisdom and love allows us to gracefully age. 

Angeles Arrien, a cultural anthropologist who died early in her elderhood (just a few years ago), did a seminar on the second half of life that I attended some years ago. She pointed to some of the touchstones and opportunities that our later years provide for us. Some of her comments that resonated with me are the following: 

Before I explore meaning, I have to explore authenticity. Allegiance to honesty and integrity is greater than stubbornness and pride.

I see the stubbornness and pride in some elders who feel that holding on to power and control is the only way to continue to have impact and meaning. Having the courage to honestly look at the world today and authentically and openly recognize our own abilities/limitations allows us to stay connected to younger generations and our peers in very significant ways. 

The mark of wisdom is a person in the second half of life who is committed to being a unifying force, creative and solution-oriented. Wisdom is not age-bound. Every culture (except ours), respects elders. We need to develop intergenerational, multi-disciplinary, and multi-cultural councils to solve problems. 

When we can connect across generations in an organized manner and share the wisdom we are harvesting, we enable future generations to consider how to apply that wisdom in arenas we have not played. The combination of wisdom of the elderly with the understanding of today’s world is magical.

We cannot have wisdom without integrity and character. And it is never found in the extremes. Nor is it found in states of indulgence or denial. When in denial or indulgence, we normalize the abnormal, taking us out of our integrity base. It is always found trying to hold all the options and possibilities to find an elegant solution. 

Finding the way to make connections, come to middle ground, and being a force for “and” rather than “but” is a great gift that comes from seeing the benefits of collaboration over conflict.

Reciprocal mutuality is coded in our genetics—to help one another. In the second part of life, generativity includes passing on the family stories. We begin to harvest our journey, mend our life, and tell the stories that transmit the values and lessons learned. Young people often love to hear the stories of their ancestors and what contributed to their lives. Through this generativity, we can lead the process of healing schisms. We can encourage compassion and mutual understanding. We can demonstrate that our lives are more productive when we engage others in this mutual appreciation and complementary roles.

We have much to do in this stage of life. It is important that we identify what it is that we wish to leave as a legacy and how we can support the next generations in their work. Since living this long is a new phenomenon, we have few role models to guide us. Rather, our exploration and travels offer paths for others to consider as they approach this age as well. 


September Current Thinking Column

Friday, September 30, 2016

Implications of a Transition Plan on Today’s Operations:

Redefining the Role of the Leader

by Burak Kocer PhD

As we work with family business leaders to plan the transition of a company, one of the main topics becomes redefining the way decisions are made and carried out. In fact, a family business leader’s transition plan would be a void letter if it had no implications on how the company is run today.  Alas, this is a change that is easier said than done and a true test of sincerity for the owner. Quoting Morpheus of the film The Matrix, “There is a difference between knowing the path and walking the path.”

The most explicit impact of the transition plan on the way the company is run today concerns delegation. The mere fact that the founders grew a small startup operation to what it is today gives them every legitimate right to undertake all critical decisions. As the operations expand, the founders hire managers with specific executive responsibilities, yet in many cases, they work so closely with those managers that you would not necessarily call it a “delegation.”

In this article, I would like to discuss three main problems that stem from a lack of proper delegation. Subsequently, I will suggest various ways on how to expand delegation.  

In the absence of an effective delegation:

The owner becomes a part of the decision.

When the owners work closely with the managers, i.e., make decisions together, they eventually become a part of those decisions, which leaves no room for the development of accountability.

There remains no space to grow talented managers.

A founder, who undertakes all decisions regarding the creation of new systems, eventually leaves behind an organization that is incapable of creating anything new in his/her absence. However, this is exactly what is expected from a leader—to not only run a system effectively, but to be also capable of creating new ones.

A leader dealing with numerous key performance indicators (KPIs) cannot see the forest for the trees.

Unlike the number of different horizontal responsibilities that a manager assumes, the number of KPIs that he/she should focus on should decrease with the level of  increasing hierarchy. When a founder strives to manage operational responsibilities, he/she ends up focusing on a vast range of KPIs, which obscure his/her appreciation of the overall situation.

Redefining the Founder’s Involvement in Business

A transition plan should eventually redefine the way in which the founder is involved in business processes today. Here are some suggestions to facilitate this most challenging task for a founder:

1. The best way to emphasize delegation is, to the extent it is possible, limit the cooperation between the founder and a manager to formally defined meetings, rather than informal discussions ad hoc.

2. Changing the meeting frequency from weekly to biweekly or even monthly can help implement the expansion of delegation incrementally.  

3. In order to make delegation properly work, a sound control system should be provided. When redefining the leader’s involvement in the operations, you need to make sure that internal controls are up and running. An internal control checklist is a critical instrument that requires periodic review.

4. Although valuable as time savers, abbreviations sometimes make us forget the real meaning of the concept. For example, KPI stands for key performance indicator and has value in limited numbers. A priority matrix can be utilized to outline monthly, quarterly, and annual review periods for each KPI in order to keep the meeting agenda more concise.

5. Tolerance intervals should be defined for the KPIs not included in the predefined review schedule and should be reported if and when there is a deviation greater than the accepted level. For example, this can be 1% for an indicator and 3% for another.


September Current Thinking Column

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Consilience: Linking Knowledge from Different Disciplines to Create a New Knowledge

by William Roberts, CLU, ChFC

The Aspen Family Business Group recently hosted a multi-disciplinary conference at Cannon Beach, Oregon.  There, with the crashing of ocean waves as our soundtrack and incredible natural beauty as our backdrop, 20 advisors from a variety of professional specialties joined together to share our passion for counseling with families in business.

The goal of the conference was to pass along both explicit and tacit knowledge about working with families in business, and to share in collaboration with other advisors. As the weekend progressed, a rich sharing of thought and insight unfolded.  The advisors truly bonded together over a similar passion to share the wisdom garnered from their time in the trenches with families.

One of the skills we explored was the ability to ask reflective questions—the nature of which cause the person being asked to pause and reflect. These types of questions open dialogue rather than ending it.  This skill was demonstrated in a "live case study" created by the group.  Problems were manufactured around the theme of a business succession crisis in a family business.  They ranged from a major health problem inserting the urgency to a rift in the family over an addiction issue to an unclear succession path and several business or financial issues. The insights gained by watching skilled specialists in different disciplines ask questions exposed the breadth of the family's issues.  From the reluctance of the senior generation to face the urgency of the succession situation to the fact that the bank or a non-family partner could call in notes and essentially shut down the business, a range of problems and issues were identified.  As Einstein said, "A problem identified is half solved.” This scope in questioning demonstrated the importance of having different disciplines involved, and that collaboration to understand the full range of issues while working together to devise solutions for the family is key.

For years, we have looked for insightful and thoughtful questions. We have searched for questions that will reframe a problem in a different light and cause the person being questioned to pause and say, "I have never thought about the problem that way.”  We learned just such a question a few years ago.  As the story goes, an advisor was having a first time meeting with a very affluent person at a Starbucks.  The meeting was winding down with the fatal result for any advisor trying to move to an action step, the client said, "Great to meet you, but I think I have all my ducks in order and I am all set.”  The advisor then asked, "Would you mind if I asked just one more question? How would things be going both operationally and personally in your family if you had passed away 90 days ago?"  As the advisor related to us, with this question came three hours of discussion that culminated in the client agreeing to hire the advisor.  When asked later on why he had hired him, he relayed that every other advisor had asked a similar question but in the future tense, "What would happen if you died five years from now?" he said, “But you put me in the picture by asking what would be happening if I died 90 days ago.  You made me realize where all the missing elements of my plan existed and motivated me to action.” I have used that question ever since.

I had the opportunity to study an address by Dean James Ryan from his 2016 Commencement speech for the Harvard Graduate School of Education.  He put forth the premise that searching for great questions and then using them in all kinds of situations—with family, with friends, at work with fellow employees, or with clients—would help others and increase our value to those around us.  He then described five questions which at first seem quite ordinary, but upon reflection provide a way to see past the easy answers and to focus instead on the information behind the answer that gives us so much insight into the real problems that exist.  

Here are the five questions Dean Ryan suggested could open the door to deeper insight:

The first is "Wait, what? " The "wait" is the stop sign when we hear something that is important but needs further clarification. "What" could be asked in various forms several times until we have the clarification crucial to a full understanding.  The "what" keeps us from jumping to conclusions about the answers.

The second question is “I wonder…?” followed by “if,” "why,” and “what” which expresses curiosity and an invitation to imagine. This type of “What could happen if…?” mindset can lead to a better understanding of what the other person is imagining in their own mind and encourages them to drill even deeper into the subject being addressed.

The third question is "Couldn't we at least…?" This is a question that could be used when the conversation is stuck on some point, enabling us to get past the disputes or disagreements and instead find areas of common consensus from which to move forward.  It is also a method to move forward when we are not sure of where we will finish.  “If we could just begin...” or “How might that play out?”  is a way to move forward around difficult barriers.

The fourth question is “How can I help?” This expresses a humility that we may not have all the answers and that there are others—other advisors, other experts—who can offer assistance.  We are looking for specific ways that we individually can help.  Yet this question also expresses a genuine desire to lend a hand where we have the expertise or insight to assist.

The fifth question is "What truly matters?"  Dean Ryan even suggests that this question could be substituted for New Year's resolutions. This moves to the heart of the issue at hand and truly allows the questioner to delve into the motivation behind the person answering.

If you get into the habit of asking these questions regularly, you have an excellent chance of being both successful and happy.


July Current Thinking Column: Consilience

Thursday, July 28, 2016


by Joe Paul

In families, each individual carries a narrative about their family. Sometimes these narratives match up with one another, yet often they do not. Sometimes individuals understand the motivations of their relatives, yet often they do not. Family members need to trust each other, yet it does not always happen. 
We find that families in business together (FBT) often have divergent memories that can be so different from each other that one might conclude they grew up in completely different homes. 

An example: I once was talking with three adult siblings about their family history. A brother said to his older sister, 

“I used to get so scared when dad would become angry and treat you roughly.”
“What do you mean?” his sister asked.
“It happened lots of times. I remember us sitting at dinner one time and Dad grabbed a handful of your hair saying, ‘Get that damned hair out of your face!'”
His sister looked concerned. 
“I don’t remember anything like that. What happened next?”
“Well, we did what we always did. We whispered a frightened ‘May I be excused?’ and slowly slid our chairs back, silently withdrawing to our rooms, shutting the door behind us. We would stay alone in our room for the rest of the evening hoping we wouldn’t hear the sound of his shoes coming down the hall.” 
“That’s so strange,” she said to her brother, “I don’t remember Dad being physically abusive to anyone except you.”
“What do you remember?” he asked.
“He was always slapping you on the side of your head, or kicking or shoving you around when you did something he didn’t like.”
“Wow! That is really spooky,” he said. “I don’t remember him ever being abusive to me.”

In the Aspen Family Business Group, we call this kind of difference between the memories of individual family members “narrative dissonance.” This kind of condition emerges in families that experience long periods of time in a high level of chronic anxiety. It is an example of the kinds of challenges facing families in business together (FBT).

In a small workshop this upcoming August, the Aspen Family Business Group is introducing the term consilience to the field of counseling families in business. The Latin root of the term means “jumping together.” We are using the term to describe the coming together of family members over things like their memories, ideas, beliefs, emotions, mission, and purpose. We work to develop creative ways to overcome their differences, encourage family harmony, and create a more productive organizational culture in the businesses they own. We use the word consilience to describe the way we work with our clients that are FBT. Consilience creates convergence and agreement in spite of differences. Consilience encourages the differentiation of individuals and sub-groups (e.g. a Board of Directors, next generation of owners). 

Reaching consilience requires courage, respect, dedication, altruism, goodwill and trust. As a family loses consilience, communication breaks down in the business and/or the family. Individuals become aggressive, selfish, pig-headed, and secretive. At the same time, altruism, trust, and collaboration disappear.

In the sciences, consilience describes a convergence and confirmation of knowledge from different disciplines. In legal circles, it describes an agreement among all parties. In Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, the entomologist E.O. Wilson postulates that since the Renaissance, the sciences have become split into more and more narrowly defined specialties. He believes that through consilience, there will be a reversal of that history, uniting science and the humanities.

Our conciliatory process helps families overcome the damaging effects of mistrust, internal competition, poor communication, etc. The conciliatory process involves assessment, alignment, commitment and implementation. We are sharing this concept with any interested advisor to FBT because we believe that the use of these processes does not require formal graduate psychological training and education. Rather, what is required is wisdom and emotional intelligence. 

In the August workshop, our goal is to pass on both our explicit and our tacit knowledge about working with FBT’s and collaborating with their other advisors. We will be giving you practical tools that are “tried and true,” as well as introduce concepts like memetics, epistemology, cultural evolution, and evolutionary psychology that will be new to you in the context of family businesses. These ideas are stretching our own understanding of the profound purpose and meaning of what our work is really all about. 


June Current Thinking Column

Thursday, June 30, 2016

Legacy Transformation

by Leslie Dashew

I recently had a conversation with a client who said, “A lot of what you write about is how to transition ownership and legacy from one generation to another…but what about those of us who are considering selling the legacy business? What about our dilemma?”

So I decided that I would give it some thought through writing about it. 

The Dilemma: We have tried to be good stewards of the business we have been given through our work in the family business, our oversight on the board, and the role(s) we play in the family and community. We have appreciated the assets we have been given. However, our lives have taken different paths, the industry is not the same and frankly, the continuation of the business without the infusion of much debt or sharing of equity would not be good stewardship of this asset. Even more so, the passion isn’t there anymore. 

So, as our friend Jay Hughes has suggested, without the energy that comes from personal passion, a business will die (see, for instance, his thoughts on the matter in The Rising Generation).

The legacy of most families, however, is more than the business. In addition, there is often a “spiritual legacy” that encompasses the lessons, values, principles, stories, and wisdom that can be shared from generation to generation. There are also pieces of a legacy we often might choose not to pass on, such as addiction, abuse, suicide, long-term conflict, and/or obligation to continue a destructive relationship, or unrewarding business.

Transforming the legacy means, to me, taking the best of the family’s financial, spiritual, relational, intellectual, and other forms of capital and passing them on in a form that will be productive for current and future generations. Some examples include:

In one family, the founder created a somewhat successful business from which his sons took the baton and continued, through good times and bad. The father originally built a very small business, but as the sons took over, they had to learn good business practices in order to grow the company. At one point, they were so close to bankruptcy that they felt their faith was the only thing that saw them through it. However, because of this experience, the sons committed to sharing their success with the employees who stuck it out through thick and thin. This experience also inspired the sons to tithe. Their legacy was not just a financial one, but a very concrete manifestation of the faith in what they shared. This legacy passes on to the next generation on paper in legal documents and also in the hearts of their heirs. 

In another family, the rising generation (4th) faced the conflict of their elders (3rd generation), which prevented them from constructively collaborating in the stewardship of their family and its assets. They came together, determining that conflict would not be their legacy. They committed to enacting certain practices and processes that would keep communication open and direct. They also committed to creating their own vision of the future that built on the strengths of the family and business, leaving behind the “shaky” footing of the previous generation. 

Another family captured the heroic history of their ancestors in books and videos about the family and their endeavors. They sold the legacy assets and built new businesses that were relevant to today’s market. So while honoring the values, courage, and business savvy of the founding generations, they pursued a new path that captured their imaginations and hearts, ultimately leading to financial success. 

Finally, another family took the difficult path of saying they would be better off not collaborating as business partners, but rather finding a way to stay connected as a family, which they ultimately deemed more important. They honored their roots as blood relatives and worked hard to rebuild relationships that had been strained by the inability to partner together. They each took a part of the business legacy and transformed it individually, healing the strained relationships. Their gift to the next generation was the opportunity to have holidays together, to remember the ups and downs of the family history, and to create new traditions.

Research at Emory University has shown that children who have heard stories about their ancestors are more resilient than those who have not. These ancestral stories help children feel they are a part of something larger than themselves, fostering an enduring identity that holds generational meaning. So, when the going gets tough, children know others might have solutions as the family goes back generations.

Moreover, kids who have heard stories that included the “ups and downs” also understand the cyclical nature of life, and that when you hit rough spots, it isn’t the end. 

These resilient offspring have a legacy that gives them context and hope during the most difficult times, as well as stories of achievement and dreams that can propel them further.

As such, I think that part of the answer to my client’s question about passing on legacy from family to an outsider is to look to the stories, traditions, and creative possibilities that can be passed along no matter what physical assets exist. These may ultimately be more powerful as they provide the tools with which new legacies can be built. 


May Current Thinking Column

Tuesday, May 31, 2016


Direction, Representation, and Accountability

by Burak Kocer, PhD

This past April, I spent three creative days in our Aspen Family Business Group 2016 Spring Salon with Joe Paul, Leslie Dashew, Bill Roberts and Donnel Nunes. These annual meetings provide a great opportunity to catch up and contribute to each other’s work by learning from each others’ experiences and perspectives. This year, we also hosted Dr. Manulani Aluli-Meyer of University of Hawaii, with her brilliant wisdom introducing to us the concept of “epistemology” and how we can apply it in our work.

For my part, I have greatly benefited from the Spring Salon, in terms of clarifying my mind and focusing on my role more effectively as a family business advisor. This column is one of the most immediate outcomes of our Spring Salon on my behalf. Since I wrote my October column on “The Art and Science of Governance,” I have been working on developing a more organized and clear model. Well, one does not need to look far for inspiration to further develop this model with these wonderful people around me. Hence, this small piece is devoted to the leading experts of the Aspen Family, Donnel, and Dr. Meyer.

Decision-Making Power

Defining how decisions are made and controlled is central to our work with families. This involves designing mutual roles of three main governance bodies in family businesses: the family council, the board of directors, and the executive team. Of course, from a legal point of view, this list should have started with the shareholders’ meeting, but for the purpose of this paper, I will not do so for the following reason:

As Joe contends, “Power in a family business is often independent of ownership or management position.” And this is exactly where we want to influence for a quality decision-making function.

The role of governing bodies is to create a healthy environment for quality discussion and ultimately form a common decision in favor of the company’s interest, not that of an individual shareholder. On the other hand, save for exceptions, a shareholders’ meeting is where individuals come with premade decisions. They either approve or disapprove an agenda item based on the position they took before they even entered the meeting. In these meetings, it is legitimate for each shareholder to protect his/her own interest and, in general, it is a process of “legalizing” the decisions that were made before.

In a family council, we prioritize creating open channels for communication among the shareholders, and between shareholders and other members of the family, ultimately developing a culture of collective decision-making. Hence, this is one of the platforms where a family can achieve “collective transformation through individual excellence” in Dr. Meyer’s words.

In fact, the three governance bodies represent stages of a process, in which multiple interests of different stakeholders are transformed into a single direction.

From Multiple Interests to a Single Voice

It is quite fair for shareholders to have different strategic preferences, risk appetites, or management styles. But these are all discussions at the ownership level and must be melted into a single voice that will set the direction for the business. Keeping this plurality at the executive level will turn into incompatible managerial actions that could potentially lead to a business disaster.

The board of directors is where different alternatives are evaluated and the direction is set.  The head of execution holds the steer as the captain to lead the business in the manner designated by the board. Depending on the complexity of the business, the appropriate mechanism may change, but the need is same: You need to develop a process for evaluation of different alternatives in a way that all shareholders feel legitimized and heard, with a single voice to guide the entire organization accordingly.

This chart depicts the strategic flow of the governance body from multiple interests to a single voice. 

Once you start designing the three main governance bodies—the family council, the board of directors, and the executive team—you will face the following questions:

  1. Who should be involved?
  2. What is the ideal size?
  3. What are the respective authorities?

The Holy Trinity

There is an unlimited number of answers to those questions. Choosing the right combination is the art of governance, which should be decided in relation to the specific needs of the family and the business. However, we also have a formula for this process, which I call the holy trinity of corporate governance:

  1. Direction
  2. Representation
  3. Accountability

Whatever governance model you create, it should satisfy these three needs. You have to make sure that governance bodies:

  1. provide a clear direction to the organization,
  2. allow for representation of stakeholders and
  3. hold those who are authorized to act on behalf of the others accountable

At this point, I would like to recall the second axiom in Joe Paul's book, The Emotional Ledger, "It is not a question of whether a family business is governed or not. A more salient question is what is the business and the family being governed by." The right answer to this question lies in the way a family business approaches the aforementioned three needs. 


“If there is no goal to achieve, there is no progress to be secured.”

When the company is not operating in line with the predefined and approved objectives, the performance of executive managers will be questionable. In a family business, the cost of this suspicion is usually higher. It is good practice to have a system in place that allows for setting the objectives accurately. To do so is inevitable to define, which requires a combination of skills and experience to ensure the quality of decision-making.  This analysis will help families focus on the qualifications instead of individuals and differentiates between ownership and management roles, which come with different rights and responsibilities.


“Rewards of inclusiveness outweigh perceived risks.”

Families need a shared vision, which is carried out to the future owners of the business throughout the years. This requires gradually involving family members who do not work in the business with the governance system. Representation also allows family members to be confident that they are able to exercise their legitimate rights on the business despite limited involvement in operations, while differentiating between ownership and management.


“If both questions and answers come from the same person, you cannot be sure about the accuracy of either one.”

The depth of separation will depend on the complexity of the business, but any organization requires some sort of border between execution and control. This also allows for a division of work between the decision makers in terms of their time horizon. The focus of those who undertake the daily operations is on the specific work they do, while those who exercise the control function must apply a broader perspective to ensure long-term stability.

Matching the Holy Trinity with Governance Bodies

This Governance Priorities Matrix can be used as a guideline when seeking the right answers for designing governance bodies.

At the family council, the primary concern is representation, followed by direction. First, anyone with legitimate interest in the business must be present. Only with their involvement can the direction for the business be mutually agreed upon and accepted.

In the board of directors, the primary concern is giving a clear direction to the executive team and accountability for the formulation and execution of this direction. Representation is of least concern, as we cannot give up the qualifications we need to set an accurate direction for the sake of an individual member’s needs. This is where different interests are melted into a single voice, requiring a combination of diverse skills. A good practice is to define the required qualifications and let people nominate the appropriate candidates according to their right of representation.

At the executive level, representation is not one of the needs to be satisfied at all. In fact, the entire chain of governance is built upon this objective: To ensure that the business is run by competent hands. These competent hands will be accountable to the board for results, and must cooperate with them in setting the direction and providing feedback.

When evaluating the governance bodies, you may want to check The Governance Priorities Matrix to understand the potential consequences of your existing composition. 


Save The Date: Private Workshop for Advisors

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Save the Date

Private Workshop for Advisors to Families in Business 

August 19-21, 2016
To Learn Leading Edge Tools and Concepts 
In an Intimate Setting with Pioneering Experts, 
Joe Paul, Leslie Dashew, and Bill Roberts
of the Aspen Family Business Group
Schooner's Cove Inn
Cannon Beach, Oregon

For more information about the event, including how to register, click here.


March Current Thinking Column

Thursday, March 31, 2016

Letting Go and Preparing the Next Generation for Succession

by Leslie Dashew

16 years ago, Joe Paul and I worked in Nepal with advisors to family businesses and conducted the first ever Family Business Program in Nepal. Upon return from that trip, I flew immediately to Grand Rapids, Michigan where I gave the following talk on Succession.  As I reviewed this presentation, I thought it would be timely to share once again.

I have just returned from one of the most fascinating places on earth:  Nepal.  I spent two weeks training advisors to family businesses in one of the poorest, but most beautiful places on earth.  The elevation of the country changes from almost sea level in the southern Terai to over 28,000 feet at the top of Mt. Everest in the north. This is a country in transition:  it has been open to the west since just the l950s; has had democracy for less than l0 years; and businesses have only really developed in the last l0-15 years. More than half of their national budget comes from development funds from other countries. 

There is a strong tradition of the “undivided family” there, where parents and their grown children and grandchildren live together, keeping their assets undivided, or pooled. But as the country goes through this transition, there are questions about whether the undivided family will continue to work.  There are large business houses (as they are called), equally sophisticated as the largest family business in this country, who believe that staying together provides access to more resources than the divided family.  And there are others who believe that it is impossible for siblings to work together, own businesses together and/or live together harmoniously, and that assets should be divided so that the competition and creative energies will foster greater growth in the assets.

The country has not seen a surge of succession issues just yet, as they are still struggling with the questions of basic survival and moving from a dependent economy to a more free-standing economy.  But we heard issues that mirrored all the issues we see in family businesses in the west:  lack of communication and understanding between the generations; fear of discussing “issues;”  negative influences of “outsiders” (like in-laws) who may be jealous or have different values; old ways vs. new ways and professionalizing the business. They are just now beginning to have the opportunity to consider passing a business to the next generation.

One of the benefits of traveling-particularly to a country which is so remote and different- is to gain perspective. And one of the lessons of this trip was an affirmation that that we have more in common with people around the globe than we are different.

We are very fortunate in this country to have developed a relatively stable economy, broad based opportunities for creativity and entrepreneurship and access to many kinds of resources.   We are blessed with the opportunity to have to worry about how to pass on assets:  we actually have assets to pass on.  We are even blessed with having a bureaucratic government to have to deal least it is somewhat consistent and predictable from year to year. And all of our children-male and female- have the opportunity to become owners of our assets and to readily have access to education. We take a lot for granted in this country and traveling to the other side of the globe helps me to gain perspective.


I came away not only with an appreciation of our country, but of Nepal’s wisdom and beauty as well.  And you’ll forgive me if I look at succession a bit differently now than I did three weeks ago.  For now, I believe we must look at it in terms of the legacy we have and the responsibility of passing on that legacy as carefully as possible.  Something I learned in Nepal gives guidance to that.  The country is largely Hindu, but holds a strong Buddhist tradition as well.  The two cornerstones of Buddhism are compassion and knowledge. The more I thought about it, the more I came to believe that these are the cornerstones of successful succession in family businesses as well. 


1.  For the Elder Generation

When you are passionate about your work and your business and have spent countless hours and years intimately involved with every detail of it, it is hard to let go.

When you look around you and see the people who have helped you build this business over the years, people who are loyal, dedicated, talented, and have become like family (if they weren’t already related), it is hard to let go.

When you see the young people around you who don’t seem to have the same work ethic, commitment, “fire in the belly,” and they think they can take care of your baby, the business, it is hard to let go.

When you look at the stakeholders in the business and worry if they will conflict with each other, if they will be jealous of one another, or if they will develop a shared vision for the future of your business, it is hard to let go.

When you think about what you would do with your time, your energy, your creativity or with whom you’d do it if you didn’t stay involved with your business, it is hard to let go. 

A productive, engaged, successful man or woman who has built a business can’t just let go. You have to take hold of something else: something which is interesting, challenging and gives you a sense of purpose. And making this transition doesn’t happen over night.

It takes time to reengage in other activities:  you have to find the right niche.

It takes time to build confidence in the next generation of leaders: they have to have the authority and autonomy to lead, while you are on the sidelines offering coaching.

It takes time to build an ownership team that understands its role and place in the scheme of things; and it takes time for a family to build a shared vision of the future which includes the opportunity for everyone to share in its creation. 

So how do you engage the younger generation in this dialogue so that you can have confidence as you pass the baton to the next runner?

First you have to trust that the runner who is following you will catch the baton when you pass it to him or her.

You must trust in his competence, character, and commitment.

Second, you must have faith that the legacy you have built has taken root in your successors: that you have provided the values, learning opportunities, and space to use what you have given them.

Third you must give the family team the opportunity to have their imprint on the business (just as you have) and to find their way to work together.

Finally, you have to let matter how hard it is.  For unless you let go of the baton, the next runner cannot take it. 

2.  For The Younger Generation

As for the younger generation, how do you prepare for the challenge of carrying on the business? How do you follow in the footsteps of a powerful force, a great actor.

For the successor generation, it is like standing in the wings, as an understudy watching the star perform on stage and waiting for your chance to show that you, too, know the lines, the blocking, and the character. Sure, you get your time on stage in smaller parts, but you know you can do the big role and you are just waiting for your chance. The problem is, the lead doesn’t want to give up his role. So you remain untested—waiting, practicing, learning. While you admire the leading actor, you can’t help feeling you might be able to do it just as well, or even better.

Following in the shadow of a large tree is not easy:  it is hard to find your place in the sun. But you must honor the tree, your roots, and your own new growth. You must appreciate the foundation you have been given and build upon it. Maintaining the dignity and honor of the prior generation is important to your own esteem. You must prepare by developing your capacity to lead and to manage. It is difficult to gain the respect of the older generation. It is difficult to wait for the older generation to let go of the baton and let you have the authority to make decisions and direct the business.

There is a range of types of capital which you must be able to manage:

  1. Operational Assets (money, equipment, factories)
  2. Intellectual Capital (information, knowledge, advisors, mentors)
  3. Relationship (your team, your network, your family)
  4. Spiritual (your beliefs, faith, commitment)
  5. Health (physical and emotional health, energy)


Earning the trust of the generation which precedes you means demonstrating that you will be a good manager of these resources (managing means doing things right), but also to be a good leader-which means doing the right things.  This too, requires balance.  In the ancient oriental book, the Art of War, Sun Su says that great leaders possess the five characteristics in balance:  sternness, humanness, intelligence, courage and trustworthiness. 

In a commentary on this, Jai Lin describes what occurs if a leader is out of balance on these dimensions: 

Reliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness among followers

Exercise of humaneness alone results in weakness

Fixation on trust results in folly

Dependence on strength of courage results in violence

Excessive sternness of command results in cruelty 

When one has all 5 virtues together, each appropriate to its function, then one can be a leader. 

Development of Knowledge

So given our understanding and compassion for both of these roles, how do we bring about the transition?

According to Margaret Mead, it takes 3 generations to have a full conversation: 

the oldest generation to say how things were;

the middle generation to say how things are; and

the youngest generation to say how things will be.

The key lies in creating the forum for on-going dialogue and the development of compassion and knowledge.  

Succession involves many dimensions and actors, and the challenge is that we never know how long we have to make the transition. It could be minutes, or it could be decades.  Until you take your leadership of this transition seriously and realize that you may not have as long as you hope to pass on the legacy, the process doesn’t occur. 

The succession is not just about ownership or equity, and it’s not just about management, which are the two most commonly considered factors. It is also succession of knowledge, relationships, and authority.

One of the challenges to the transition, is when the next generation doesn’t appear to appreciate the knowledge or ways of the older generation. It’s hard for the older to trust the successor—after all, that’s what’s made you  successful.

So, transferring the knowledge you do have, and realizing that it has to be supplemented by new knowledge, requires compassion for the next generation.

They have to make mistakes too, and it would be better to do so while you are around to consult.

Succession also means relationships.  The web of relationships which surround the elders have contributed to the success: employees who have helped build the business, advisors on whose wisdom you have depended, suppliers and customers whose loyalty is often hard to replace, and the family whose support and challenges have been part of your role as well.

Succession means allowing these relationships to evolve as well.  Sometimes the long-term employees have a hard time accepting the leadership of the kids they’ve watched grow up.  Some will have to go because they don’t want to grow with the new ways.  Old advisors may not have kept up their knowledge or their connections with the new generation, so sometimes the youngsters have to find their own advisors. 

Customers and suppliers watch the changing of the guard as well--often looking for signs of confidence from the older generation and looking for signs of new passion, energy and creativity.

Finally, and often most challenging, is the succession of authority.  At some point, the baton must leave one hand and go to the next. Until that happens, the succession is a sham.  Until the responsibility, the decisions, the power is vested in the next generation, titles, money and other roles are meaningless.  The relay race cannot go on unless the baton is passed.  And if the older generation trips and falls before it is passed, the opportunity to take pride in the next generation, to see a legacy go forward, to provide coaching from the sidelines and to receive the recognition and acknowledgement that accompanies a successful transition is lost.

So how do we create the forum for this exchange of compassion and knowledge?

Establish a place for dialogue in the family so that the dreams and perspectives of all family members can be exchanged, along with knowledge, e.g. a family council.

Through the dialogue, see if you can come up with a shared vision of the future--one which the younger generations can feel excitement for and commit to making happen.

Then, look at what it will require to make that vision happen:  typically a strategic plan for the family and the business can be developed which clarifies the path for going forward. If the younger generations develop this plan, the older can offer wise counsel, yet it is up to the younger generation to make it happen.

Take whatever steps are necessary to assure that the authority is passed:

 stock transfer

true role transition in leadership

moving the energies of the older generation to new activities

Finally, use a structured time or place in which to meet to monitor progress. Through this communication, the transition can be celebrated and mid-course corrections can be considered. All, of course with wisdom and compassion.

The most common greeting upon meeting someone in Hindu countries is Namaste, or the god within me greets and honors the god within you.  Succession depends on just such mutual respect and honor.



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